|Israel Resource Review
||10th April, 2000
Why Do Children Learn the Art of War During the Peace Process:
A Review of the Palestinian Authority's Teacher's Guide
On the day that Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak was en route to
Washington to meet with President Bill Clinton to revive the peace process
with the Palestinian Authority, the "Center for Monitoring the Impact of
Peace" issued a study of the new Palestinian Authority's teacher's guide,
which serves as the new official guide that PA teachers are required to use
in their schools.
(The Center for Monitoring the Impact of Peace, located in Jerusalem,
translates Arabic language newspapers and textbooks, posts this and and its
other reports at www.edume.org, and provides data for the trilateral
American-Israeli-Palestinian commission that was formed to monitor
allegations of incitement.)
The Center's premise is that without peace education, you cannot have
peace. For that reason, Israel pioneered a curriculum for peace, a program
now in its seventh year, reaching Israeli pupils from all walks of life.
The Palestinian Authority, on the other hand, has maintained a rigid
curriculum that continues to call for liberation of all of Palestine, while
describing Israel, Jews, and Zionism in the most demonic of terms. PA
officials say in their defense that these are the books that they get from
Jordan and from Egypt.
What PA officials forget to mention is that Israel had deleted the
"offensive" sections of the Jordanian and Egyptian textbooks when Israel
ruled the west bank and Gaza, and that the Palestinian Authority has
reinstated those deletions.
Many people held out hope that all this would change.
In the words of senior Israeli cabinet minister Shimon Peres, who addressed
the International Conference of the Jewish media this past February, "We
look forward to seeing a new textbooks for peace in the Palestinian
Not so, according to Itamar Marcus, the research director of the center
that issued this comprehensive nineteen page study of the Palestine
Authority's Teacher's Guide, which reads more like a war
manual than an educator's tool.
Some Selections From the PA Teacher's Guide
PA teachers are required to prepare their students for a Jihad (holy war)
to liberate all of Palestine and to "cherish the Jihad fighters who quench
the earth of Jerusalem with their blood".
Palestinian Authority students are to asked to emulate the efforts of
Saladin, who liberated Jerusalem from the Crusaders conquest.
PA teachers are to refer to Israel as the "Zionist occupier", in the
context of "racism and Nazism".
PA teachers are to instill in their students with the idea that "Jews are
dangerous enemies of Allah, Islam and the Arab nation".
PA teachers are to teach Zionism as an example of European imperialism,
whose aim is "the elimination of the original inhabitants of Palestine".
PA teachers are to distribute a text entitled "The Jewish danger in
PA teachers are asked to define Jews in terms of their racial and religious
zealotry, and to explain that this is why Jews were persecuted over the
years by the Christian world.
Meanwhile, the new historical texts of the Palestinian Authority, define
Israel as a "thieving conquerer", while the only map of Palestine in the
new textbooks of the Palestinian Authority eliminates the state of Israel,
while Israeli cities like Haifa, Jaffa, Beersheva, and the entire Galil and
Negev are termed Palestinian cities.
After our news agency received this Palestinian Authority teacher's guide,
I visited the Palestinian Ministry of Education near Ramallah, where I was
received in a courteous fashion.
I asked a senior PA education official there if the PA would delete
material that Israel considered to be offensive. The answer, delivered in a
soft, firm tone by a senior official of the PA was clear: "We are sovereign
and we will determine what we will teach our children, without any
Meanwhile, the US consul in Jerusalem, Mr. John Herbst, announced that the
USAID would increase its support of Palestinian education with an
additional $10 Million of assistance.
The question remains: How does this kind of education jive with a peace
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Syria, Lebanon Trying to Stymie UN Help in Israeli Pullout
by Steve Rodan
Editor, Middle East News Line
Lebanon and Syria are trying to stymie United Nations
cooperation for an Israeli withdrawal from southern Lebanon.
Lebanon and Syria have set tough terms for an expanded UN peacekeeping
presence in Lebanon in the wake of any Israeli pullout. The terms were
relayed in a letter to U.N. secretary-general Kofi Annan from Lebanese
President Emile Lahoud.
Among the conditions set in Lahoud's letter were that U.N. forces help
in disarming Palestinian fighters and that the world body guarantee
Lebanon's sovereignty. In a meeting with UN coordinator for the Middle East
process Terji Larsen, Lahoud demanded that the UN help to prevent Israel
from violating Lebanese airspace and waters.
Israeli officials said Lahoud's demands were dictate by Syria, which has
35,000 troops in Lebanon. On April 6, Larsen met Syrian Foreign Minister
Farouk A-Shaara on Israeli plans for a withdrawal.
Annan has expressed his intention to cooperate with an Israeli
withdrawal during a meeting in Geneva with Israeli Foreign Minister David
Levy. This could include bolstering UN forces in southern Lebanon.
In Beirut, Lebanese Prime Minister Salim Hoss said he did not believe
Israel's intentions to withdraw from Lebanon.
"We will be wary regarding this new situation because we don't trust Israel
and its conspiracies, as we are used to its deceptions," Hoss said.
In Damascus, the Syrian A-Thawra daily on April 6 said the Israeli
plans to withdraw from Lebanon is a "maneuver meant to continue occupation."
The Iranian-backed Hizbullah has refused to rule out attacks on Israel
even after it withdraws from Lebanon. Hizbullah deputy secretary-general
Naim Kassem raised the prospect that the Shi'ite militia would seek to
defend the Palestinians.
"Even in the case of a total Israeli withdrawal from southern Lebanon,"
Kassem said, "there will not be either guarantees, or security arrangements
because the enemy continues to drive the Palestinians from their land and
occupy the Golan and Jerusalem."
Hours later, Hizbullah gunners opened fire on Israeli and South Lebanese
Army positions in southern Lebanon. The shelling continued for much of
Wednesday. No casualties were reported.
Assad, Mubarak Again Discuss Suspended Peace Talks
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak has discussed the suspended
Israeli-Syrian negotiations with Syrian President Hafez Assad for the second
time in less than a week.
Mubarak telephoned Assad in what diplomatic sources said was a
U.S.-inspired Egyptian initiative to persuade the Syrian president to resume
peace negotiations with Israel. The sources said President Bill Clinton
urged Mubarak to urge Assad to reconsider his refusal for a compromise on
his demand for control of the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan River, two
waterways now under Israeli rule.
The Syrian news agency SANA reported that Assad and Mubarak discussed on
the evening of April 4 "the Arab situation in general and the latest
developments in the peace process."
Diplomatic sources said the flurry of phone calls was part of Mubarak's
plans to meet Assad in Damascus over the weekend. The sources said Assad
appears to have withheld his agreement for such a meeting.
The preparations for the summit have been mired in confusion. The
Egyptian Information Ministry announced that Syrian Foreign Minister Farouk
A-Shaara would visit Cairo Wednesday.
At first, SANA confirmed the report. Later, the agency said the visit
was being postponed. On Wednesday, Egyptian officials verified that A-Shaara
cancelled the visit.
U.S. officials are monitoring Mubarak's efforts. In Amman, U.S. Defense
Secretary William Cohen expressed Israeli and U.S. disappointment over
Assad's refusal to resume peace efforts.
"[Israeli] Prime Minister [Ehud] Barak was obviously disappointed,"
Cohen said. "President [Bill] Clinton has been disappointed because they had
hoped that President Assad would in fact respond positively and that did not
occur. So it was a great disappointment. I think there is still hope, that
somehow others can persuade President Assad that this is an opportunity he
should take advantage of, but as President Clinton has said, the ball is
very much in the Syria's court today."
In Jerusalem, several senior Israeli officials acknowledged that they
were too optimistic over Assad's willingness to make peace with Israel.
"Nobody knows what is in Assad's mind," Regional Cooperation Minister Shimon
Eye on Syria a Timely Review
of the Official Syrian Media
Week of April 10, 2000
Syrian Blames Israel for Death of Peace Process
Damascus is blaming Israel for a halt in the peace process.
Official Syrian newspapers and radio stations blamed Israeli Prime
Minister Ehud Barak for the failure of the peace negotiations between the
"There was never such a gloomy atmosphere in the Middle East because of
Israeli policy," the Al Baath daily said on April 12.
Earlier, Syrian Foreign Minister Farouk A-Sharaa did not issue a similar
assessment during a visit to Madrid. But Syria's official media changed its
tone following the Barak meeting with President Bill Clinton in Washington
on April 11.
"We didn't consider the option that Barak would come to the Washington
summit with an olive branch but no one thought that he was bringing with him
an end to peace while he beats on the war drums," Al Baath said. "He has
fired the lost shot in the peace process. By increasing the settlements on
the Golan, Israel is beating on the war drums. Don't expect Syria to appease
On April 13, Al Baath daily said Syria could wait years to ensure that
rights are achieved. This, the newspaper said, includes territorial and
rights to the Sea of Galilee.
The Syrian media also blamed the United States for towing the line of
the Israeli propaganda and not being a fair intermediary.
"The United States must avoid the collapse of the peace process before
it's too late," the Al Thawra daily said on April 12.
Damascus Radio criticized Israel for escalating attacks on southern
Lebanon. "Israeli policy is placing the Middle East in a position of facing
dangerous alternatives and the responsibility will fall on the United States
and Israel if the peace process fails," a commentary said.
The radio said that Clinton's meeting with President Hafez Assad in
Geneva on March 26 was a failure. "The ideas brought by the American side to
Geneva summit were humiliating," the radio said.
Bashar Tries to Lead Syria on Internet
The son and heir-apparent of Syrian President Hafez Assad wants to be a
pioneer of the internet in one of the most closed societies in the Arab
Bashar Assad has agreed to participate in a Lebanese-Syrian symposium on
the development of the Internet and
data technology. The seminar is being organized by the Bashar-headed Syrian
Scientific Association for Data.
The government daily Tishrin reported on April 10 that the cosponsor is
the Lebanese Assembly for Data. Syria has pressed Lebanon, which has 35,000
Syrian troops, to cooperate on all infrastructure programs. Lebanon is far
more advanced than Syria in Internet usage.
The seminar will be held in both Damascus and Beirut starting on April
25. At the same time, Damascus will convene an exhibition Sham 2000, which
will deal with technology and data.
Officials said the symposium will discuss data technology and
communications, the computer industry and training for young Lebanese and
Syria Admits to Halt in Economic Growth
Syria plans to establish industrial zones in major cities
as part of the new government's economic reform policy as officials have
acknowledged to a halt in growth.
Officials said the industrial zones will be funded and established in
Damascus, Aleppo and Homs. They said the zones are meant to increase
investment in Syria, which has decreased over the last five years.
The most drastic decline was in 1998 when private investment decreased
from 17.4 percent to 8.5 percent. Syrian newspapers said on April 6 that
said this led to a halt in
Officials have urged Syrian expatriates to invest their money in the new
zones. They pointed to a free trade agreement with the United Arab Emirates
as well as the launching of free trade zones with Jordan. The zones will be
located along the border of the two countries.
A-Shaara Rules Out International Court With Israel
Syrian Foreign Minister Farouk A-Sharaa has ruled out the prospect of
taking the dispute with Israel over the Sea of Galilee to the international
court in the Hague.
A-Shaara termed as "media delusion" reports that the issue between Syria
and Israel over the Golan Heights would be taken to international
arbitration. Instead, he said Israel must withdraw from the Golan Heights.
The Syrian Arab News Agency said on April 1, in remarks reported in all
Syrian newspapers the following day, that A-Shaara urged Arab ambassador to
Damascus not to fall into the "trap of media delusion launched by some
newspapers over turning the subject to the international law court. Israel's
full withdrawal from occupied Golan Heights until June 4 borderline is an
Arab and just request as well as a legitimate right ratified by the Arab
summits and the international legitimacy. Syria is still committed to full
rights in accordance to these resolutions and principals and will carry on
efforts to reach to the just and honorable peace that would guarantee the
legitimate right to restore Syrian territories."
Israeli Society Immature to Make Peace
Damascus radio Israeli society is not sufficiently mature to achieve
just and comprehensive peace decision.
The radio, in an April 1 commentary, said the government of Prime
Minister Ehud Barak is unable to make peace.
"The peace that is based on justice and comprehensiveness requires a
total Israeli withdrawal from Golan and south Lebanon as well as the
occupied Arab territories in addition to full adherence to the international
legitimacy resolutions," the radio said.
In its daily commentary, the radio said the Israelis were delaying,
playing games while asking others to concede over land, water and security.
The radio said this would doom the peace process.
The radio pledged Syria was still honest in seeking peace as a strategic
choice but that would be only when its land and rights are restored.
"The international community bear total responsibility atop of it comes
the United States in order not to waste the historical peace chance just
because Israel does not want to make the just and comprehensive peace," the
Syria Admits to Failure of Geneva Meeting
Syria has admitted that the March 26 summit between President Hafez
Assad and U.S. President Bill Clinton was a failure.
Mohammed Khair Jamali wrote in the Al Thawra daily that the summit fell
short of hopes. Still, he wrote, the summit was still important for Syria.
Damascus still clings to peace as a strategic choice while clinging to its
rejection of any haggling of land or rights.
Jamali said on March 31 that Israel demonstrated its escape from peace.
He cited Prime Minister Ehud Barak's evasion of a Syrian demand for a full
withdrawal from the Golan Heights.
"The Israeli governments including Barak's one seeks to exploit these
pretexts on the expense of the Arab national security and rights," the
Jamili said Barak should have supported his optimism of the summit by
declaring "his frank commitment to the total withdrawal from Golan to June
4,1967 borderlines. He would also declare his acceptance of the borders
demarcation according to the principle included in the international law. If
Barak did so during the talk phone with the American president, Bill Clinton
from Geneva after the first prolonged session of the Syrian-American summit,
peace would be at two bows length or less from the realization if not
actually started its first steps."
Israel, Jamali said, shoulders alone the responsibility of the results
of the summit, which don't create optimism of the peace forthcoming to the
region. The cause beyond this matter was due to the fact that the expected
shift in the Israeli policy hadn't realized yet to produce a change in the
Al Thawra editor Amid Khouli said Syria expected that Clinton would
carry a U.S. guarantee to implement an Israeli frank statement with no doubt
or political equivocation about the withdrawal to June 4 border. Instead,
Assad found himself facing Israeli rejection of Syrian positions.
"We didn't have delusions about the possibilities of the ideological
change in the Israeli mentality, but we didn't expect also that there is
nothing new in the Israeli mentality," Khouli said. "Moreover, we didn't
expect that the American stance didn't deal with this Israeli stubborn and
disgusting case by such hesitation to the level of disability to reject the
Israeli arrogance in regard of refusing the American peace."
Senior PA Official Warns of Violence
GAZA [MENL] -- A senior Palestinian Authority official has warned of an
armed uprising unless Israel grants the Palestinians their rights.
PA Cabinet secretary Ahmed Abdul Rahman told a forum in Gaza on April 10
that Israel faces a new and more dangerous intifada, or uprising, if the
Palestinians are denied their national rights. He pointed to a deadlock in
final status talks between Israel and the PA on such issues as the future of
Jerusalem, Palestinian refugees and Jewish settlements.
Abdul Rahim, speaking to the Palestinian Legislative Council's political
committee in Gaza, said a new uprising would "not just be with rocks," a
reference to the 1987 Palestinian resistance to Israeli rule in the West
Bank and the Gaza Strip. Instead, he suggested that the violence would be
similar to the 1996 PA-led unrest in which hundreds of Palestinian police
Nearly 100 Palestinians and 15 Israeli soldiers were killed in the
Israel and the PA set a May deadline for concluding the framework
agreement of a final status accord. But PA sources said the target date
would not be met.
PA Reduces Power of Courts
The Palestinian Authority is whittling away the power of the judiciary
and is establishing special courts on both security and civilian issues.
PA sources said cases meant for the civilian court system are being
routed to the special State Security Court directly controlled by PA
Chairman Yasser Arafat. This includes disputes regarding land ownership
taxation, drugs and
Arafat, the sources, has failed to heed appeals by Palestinian
legislators, Western diplomats and human rights groups to disband the
security court. Instead, the sources said, the security court has become the
leading arbiter of justice in the PA.
Sessions of the court are held in-camera and cannot be appealed.
LAW, the Palestinian Society for the Protection of Human Rights and
Environment, expressed concern over what it termed the "poor conditions of
the judicial authority." The group said PA governors have been examining
cases that are supposed to under the jurisdiction of the courts.
"Moreover, a committee has recently been established in the Bethlehem
district for examining land dispute cases," the group said. "It has issued a
number of rulings not subject to appeal or contest. No such committee has
ever been established anywhere else in the world."
LAW warned that the Palestinian judiciary is in danger of collapse,
particularly in the West Bank. The group said judges are divided into those
who support either the PA or the court system. West Bank judges, angered by
the transfer of many of them, have been on strike for more than two months.
For his part, PA Justice Minister Freih Abu Medein has appointed
inexperienced prosecutors and has failed to announce the move, LAW said. The
group said some areas of the West Bank are understaffed with court personnel
and prosecutors. One example is in Hebron, which only has one prosecutor for
a population of 500,000.
In contrast, the Ramallah court has six prosecutors and Jericho -- with
a population of 40,000 -- has three judges.
PA Turns Down Offer for Refugee Settlement
The Palestinian Authority has rejected a reported offer by Canada to
resettle 15,000 Palestinian refugees.
But Canadian diplomats said the offer was never presented.
PA sources said the offer was made by Canadian Prime Minister Jean
Chretien during his talks in Israel and the PA this week. The sources said
the offer was rejected and PA Chairman Yasser Arafat insisted that
Palestinian refugees be allowed to return to their homes in what is now
An aide to Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak said Chretien had agreed to
absorb the refugees as part of an international effort to resolve the
refugee problem. Chretian was the first leader to make such an offer.
The aide said Barak said Israel would refuse any resettlement of the
refugees in the Jewish state.
On April 13, the PLO official responsible for refugees, Assad Abdul
Rahman, said the Palestinians reject the Canadian offer. He said that the
Palestinians should be able to return to Haifa, Jerusalem and Jaffa
according to UN General Assembly resolution 194.
Canada is host to multilateral talks on refugees. On April 13, Canada's
envoy to the PA, Tim Martin, denied that Chretien made such an offer.
"Canada has not presented any ideas for a settlement of the refugee
problem," Martin told PA radio. "We believe that that should come from the
PA Plans to Wage Fight Against New Israeli Housing
The Palestinian Authority said it plans to oppose Israeli
attempts to construct new housing in the West Bank.
PA officials said they will recruit domestic and international support
to stop plans to build a new neighborhood in Efrat south of Bethlehem as
well as in Har Gilo south of Jerusalem.
On April 13, PA Information Minister Yasser Abbed Rabbo told the Voice
of Palestinie he could
not report any progress in current negotiations with the Palestinians near
Washington. Israeli and Palestinian negotiators are discussing interim and
final status issues in sessions sponsored by the United States.
In Hebron, Palestinian sources said Israeli military authorities have
informed Arab residents that they plan to demolish the homes of eight
families near Beit Omar. The authorities said the homes were built without a
PA Introduces New Rules on Charities
The Palestinian Authority has issued new regulations
regarding the administration of charities in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
Under the regulations, the PA must approve any donation of more than
1,000 Jordanian dinars, or $1,420. Another rule requires that the charities
must give the PA 10 percent of all donations.
Charity committees, or zakat, have been established in every town in the
PA territories. They are used to maintain mosques and help the poor and ill.
PA officials suspect that the charity committees help fund Islamic
terrorist attacks and the infrastructure of Hamas and Islamic Jihad.
Opposition sources said Israel has urged the PA to restrict the committees.
PA Chairman Yasser Arafat has asked donor countries for hundreds of
millions of dollars to improve social services.
PLO Reviews New Elections
The PLO is under barrage from opposition groups that want new elections
for the Palestinian National Council before Yasser Arafat declares
Palestinian opposition groups have warned that they will not honor any
Arafat declaration unless it is preceded by new elections at the PNC and a
discussion of Palestinian goals.
Hamas said it will oppose Palestinian statehood declared by Arafat
unless a reconstituted PNC can set the terms for a declaration of
independence. Hamas spokesman Abdul Aziz Rentisi said any Arafat declaration
would be stem from the 1993 Israeli-Palestinian agreement at Oslo, an accord
opposed by the Islamic group.
On April 13, PNC chairman Salim Zaanoun was scheduled to convene the
ruling Fatah movement and opposition groups to discuss elections to the
council. Zaanoun said many members are either dead or no longer active.
It is unclear how many groups will attend the session in Ramallah. Hamas
said it was not invited.
Arafat has pledged to declare a state on Sept. 13 regardless of Israeli
Palestinian Children Face Rising Poverty
The Palestinian Authority says Palestinian children face increasing
A PA report reported in Palestinian newspapers and radio on April 7
predicted that 3.2 million Palestinians are living under the poverty line.
Of this figure, 53 percent are under 18.
The PA Central Bureau of Statistics 63 percent of the poor live in Gaza.
The bureau cited rising a Palestinian birthrate -- from 3.97 percent to 4.18
At the same time, the PA reports increased educational enrollment.
"The ideas brought by the American side to Geneva summit were humiliating,"
said Radio Damascus, according to Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA) Tuesday.
They have "represented a retreat from [former Israeli Prime Minister
Yitzhak] Rabin's deposit," to theoretically withdraw from the Israeli
occupied Syrian Golan Heights to the lines of 4 June 1967.
In Geneva summit between President William J. Clinton and Syrian
President Hafez al-Assad on March 26, that position has "constituted an
obstacle before the summit's success as to push the peace process forward."
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The Israeli Arabs and the Palestinian Authority Ultimatums in Perspective
by Aaron Lerner
A troubling poll result
Instead of telling you what I think Israeli Arabs think, I would
like to share with you what a representative sample of 500 Israeli
Arabs told pollsters last November in a survey carried out by Dr.
Assad Ganem of the Institute For Peace Studies at Givat Haviva.
Which of the following options would you choose as a solution to
the problem of the Arabs in Israel?
24.8% Replace Israel with a Palestinian state.
62.2% Israel ceases to be a Jewish Zionist state and the Jews and
Arabs will be recognized as different groups.
8.2% Israel will continue to be a Jewish Zionist state and Arabs
in Israel will enjoy democratic rights and receive their relative
share in the budgets and manage their educational, religious and
That's right. The overwhelming majority of Israeli Arab REJECT
Israel continuing to be a Jewish Zionist state EVEN if they enjoy
democratic rights and receive their relative share in the budgets
and manage their educational, religious and cultural institutions.
This in no way means that the Israeli Arabs should not enjoy
democratic rights or their fair share. The survey however does
indicate, and I say this with a heavy heart, that this will not
The five "Nos"
In the official negotiations taking place in the States, the PA has
presented a document laying out it's five "red lines," an apparent
response to recent statements by Barak in support of annexing
settlements. The document was described in the Palestinian press as
the "Five Nos" - a play on the infamous "three nos" after the 1967
Six-Day War. The PA demands that Israel withdraw to the June 4, 1967
borders, including from east Jerusalem. The PA will not accept any
Jewish settlements, nor will it put off discussion of any of the
final-status issues like Jerusalem and refugees, or accept a partial
framework deal. The document also rejects any solution that would
accommodate Palestinian refugees outside their homeland, and rejects
any Israeli military presence inside the Palestinian state (eg. No
Israeli presence on the Jordan River).
The Palestinians complain that there has been no progress in the
talks because Israel hasn't bowed to the 5 Nos.
The Palestinians make it clear that if they do not get what they want
via negotiations that they will pursue other goals via other means.
And the Israeli response? Israel recently transferred another 200
assault rifles to the PA and another 100 are on the way.
The Palestinians speak with a clear voice and all I hear from our
government is mumbling about "hard sacrifices" and "difficult
When it comes to domestic policies, Barak's clumsy poor planning and
administration is plainly obvious because our economy and society in
general is already paying a dear price in the form of crippling
stupid job actions, unemployment and a mindless series of emergency
measures - some of which will actually increase rather than decrease
In many ways the fog that surrounds negotiations with the Arabs makes
it a far more friendly environment for the incompetent since the
glaring mistakes may only really become known to the public at the
end of the talks. As long as the ball is still in the air there is
always room for the benefit of doubt that maybe - just maybe - what
may be reckless stupidity is actually a carefully designed maneuver.
One thing is certain: That it is incumbent on the Barak
Administration to get the message out that the PA's Five Nos are the
true obstacles to peace. President Clinton should understand that
all the American bridge proposals in the world can't deliver Arafat
even one of his Five Nos.
Dr. Aaron Lerner,
Director IMRA (Independent Media Review & Analysis)
P.O.BOX 982 Kfar Sava
Tel: (+972-9) 760-4719
Fax: (+972-9) 741-1645
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